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Paul Haviland 1880–1950
 
Marius de Zayas's portrait of Paul Haviland was influenced by both photography and the theater. De Zayas depicts the photographer with his camera, holding a stopwatch in one hand and the shutter bulb in the other. The awkward stance—a back-to-the-audience pose—reflects de Zayas's passion for the stage. Illustrating a daily column by a New York drama critic, de Zayas attended the theater regularly, sitting up close just behind the powerful footlights. The low vantage point and dramatic lighting of the portrait suggests this point of view.

With its soft focus, dark background, limited tonal range, and use of light to emphasize the head and hands, the large charcoal is also related to the pictorialist photography familiar to both artist and subject through exhibitions at Alfred Stieglitz's gallery. Haviland and de Zayas were close collaborators in Stieglitz's inner circle, advocating new approaches to art and to photography. De Zayas's dense, enigmatic charcoals implied a psychological synthesis that impressed the critics.

Marius de Zayas (1880–1961)
Charcoal on paper, circa 1910
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Mr. and Mrs. Harry H. Lunn Jr.
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