Gregorian reflecting telescope
James Short (1710-1768) made more than a thousand telescopes for astronomers throughout Britain and across Europe. John Winthrop seems to have been his first American customer. Like most of Short's telescopes, this is based on the optical design introduced by James Gregory in 1663. The markings "JAMES SHORT LONDON 163/954 = 12" mean that it was made in London, that it has a focal length of 12 inches, that it was the 954th telescope that Short had made, and the 163rd of that focal length.