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Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction and How It Works

Andrew Johnson
Alternate Title
Andrew Johnson
Artist
Thomas Nast, 27 Sep 1840 - 7 Dec 1902
Sitter
Andrew Johnson, 29 Dec 1808 - 31 Jul 1875
Date
1866
Type
Print
Medium
Wood engraving on paper
Dimensions
Sheet: 54.3 × 39.6 cm (21 3/8 × 15 9/16")
Topic
Costume
Exterior
Weapon\Gun
Caricature
Symbols & Motifs\Flag
Weapon\Knife
Music\Musical instrument\Flute
Weapon\Club
Weapon\Whip
Equipment\Medical Equipment\Sling
Andrew Johnson: Male
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Vice-President of US
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Governor\Tennessee
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Senator\Tennessee
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\President of US
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Senator\Tennessee
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\Public Official\Mayor
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Tennessee
Andrew Johnson: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Tennessee
Andrew Johnson: Crafts and Trades\Craftsman\Textile worker\Tailor
Portrait
Credit Line
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Restrictions & Rights
CC0
Object number
NPG.2021.7
Exhibition Label
President Andrew Johnson (1808–1875) sparked Northern outrage by favoring lenient policies toward former secessionists and resisting Congressional efforts to rebuild the South along more racially equitable lines. In addition to pardoning former Confederate leaders, Johnson vetoed the Freedman’s Bureau Bill, the Civil Rights Bill, and three military Reconstruction acts, all designed to advance and protect the civil rights of formerly enslaved men and women.
In this illustration, Thomas Nast caricatures Johnson as Shakespeare’s evil schemer Iago, shown betraying the trust of a Black Union army veteran. Scenes at the top compare the brutality of prewar slave auctions with the deadly violence of postwar massacres of African Americans in Memphis and New Orleans. Scenes at the bottom show a deferential Confederate soldier surrendering to Union General Benjamin Butler at New Orleans in 1862, only to regain the upper hand and dictate terms to Louisiana Attorney General Andrew Herron in 1866.
El presidente Andrew Johnson (1808–1875) despertó la ira del norte con políticas indulgentes hacia los antiguos secesionistas y trabas al esfuerzo del Congreso por reconstruir el sur con más igualdad racial. Perdonó a los líderes confederados y vetó la Ley de la Oficina de Libertos, la Ley de Derechos Civiles y tres leyes de reconstrucción militar, destinadas a promover y proteger los derechos civiles de los hombres y mujeres antes esclavizados.
En esta caricatura, Thomas Nast presenta a Johnson como Yago, el malvado intrigante de Shakespeare, traicionando la confianza de un veterano negro de la Unión. Las escenas de la parte superior comparan la crueldad de las subastas de esclavos con la violencia letal de las masacres de afroamericanos en Memphis y Nueva Orleans tras la guerra. En la parte inferior, un soldado confederado se rinde al general de la Unión Benjamin Butler en Nueva Orleans en 1862, pero en 1866 recupera la ventaja y dicta condiciones al fiscal general de Luisiana, Andrew Herron.
Data Source
National Portrait Gallery
Exhibition
2022 Rehang of Out of Many: Portraits from 1600 to 1900
On View
NPG, East Gallery 123
Exhibition
Reconstruction Gallery
On View
NPG, East Gallery 123