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Grant and His Generals

Grant and His Generals
Artist
Ole Peter Hansen Balling, 13 Apr 1823 - 1 May 1906
Sitter
Thomas Casimer Devin, 10 Dec 1822 - 4 Apr 1878
George Armstrong Custer, 5 Dec 1839 - 25 Jun 1876
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, 14 Jan 1836 - 2 Dec 1881
William Hemsley Emory, 7 Sep 1811 - 1 Dec 1887
Philip Henry Sheridan, 6 Mar 1831 - 5 Aug 1888
James Birdseye McPherson, 14 Nov 1828 - 22 Jul 1864
George Crook, 8 Sep 1828 - 21 Mar 1890
Wesley Merritt, 16 Jun 1834 - 3 Dec 1910
George Henry Thomas, 31 Jul 1816 - 28 Mar 1870
Gouverneur Kemble Warren, 8 Jan 1830 - 8 Aug 1882
George Gordon Meade, 31 Dec 1815 - 6 Nov 1872
John Grubb Parke, 22 Sep 1827 - 16 Dec 1900
William Tecumseh Sherman, 8 Feb 1820 - 14 Feb 1891
John Alexander Logan, 9 Feb 1826 - 26 Dec 1886
Ulysses Simpson Grant, 27 Apr 1822 - 23 Jul 1885
Ambrose Everett Burnside, 23 May 1824 - 13 Sep 1881
Joseph Hooker, 13 Nov 1814 - 31 Oct 1879
Winfield Scott Hancock, 14 Feb 1824 - 9 Feb 1886
John Aaron Rawlins, 13 Feb 1831 - 6 Sep 1869
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, 18 Oct 1818 - 22 Jul 1883
Francis Preston Blair, Jr., 19 Feb 1821 - 9 Jul 1875
Alfred Howe Terry, 10 Nov 1827 - 16 Dec 1890
Henry Warner Slocum, 24 Sep 1827 - 14 Apr 1894
Jefferson Columbus Davis, 2 Mar 1828 - 30 Nov 1879
Oliver Otis Howard, 8 Nov 1830 - 26 Oct 1909
John McAllister Schofield, 29 Sep 1831 - 4 Mar 1906
Joseph Anthony Mower, 22 Aug 1827 - 6 Jan 1870
Date
c. 1865
Type
Painting
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions
58.4 x 92.7cm (23 x 36 1/2")
Frame: 100.3 x 134.6 x 12.7cm (39 1/2 x 53 x 5")
Topic
Costume\Headgear\Military
Weapon\Sword
Exterior\Landscape\Battleground
Nature & Environment\Animal\Horse
Symbols & Motifs\Flag\National\United States
Symbols & Motifs\Flag\Military
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick: Male
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick: Politics and Government\Diplomat\Minister
Hugh Judson Kilpatrick: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
John Aaron Rawlins: Male
John Aaron Rawlins: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War
John Aaron Rawlins: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
John Aaron Rawlins: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
George Gordon Meade: Male
George Gordon Meade: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
George Gordon Meade: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
George Gordon Meade: Science and Technology\Engineer\Military
John Alexander Logan: Male
John Alexander Logan: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
John Alexander Logan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
John Alexander Logan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\US Senator\Illinois
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Illinois
John Alexander Logan: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Illinois
Winfield Scott Hancock: Male
Winfield Scott Hancock: Politics and Government\Presidential Candidate
Winfield Scott Hancock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Winfield Scott Hancock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Winfield Scott Hancock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
Winfield Scott Hancock: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
George Armstrong Custer: Male
George Armstrong Custer: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Henry Warner Slocum: Male
Henry Warner Slocum: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Henry Warner Slocum: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel
Henry Warner Slocum: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Henry Warner Slocum: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Henry Warner Slocum: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
Henry Warner Slocum: Politics and Government\US Congressman\New York
Henry Warner Slocum: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
Alfred Howe Terry: Male
Alfred Howe Terry: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Alfred Howe Terry: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Alfred Howe Terry: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
James Birdseye McPherson: Male
James Birdseye McPherson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
James Birdseye McPherson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
James Birdseye McPherson: Science and Technology\Engineer\Military
James Birdseye McPherson: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
George Crook: Male
George Crook: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
George Crook: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Male
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
Edward Otho Cresap Ord: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Joseph Hooker: Male
Joseph Hooker: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
Joseph Hooker: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
Joseph Anthony Mower: Male
Joseph Anthony Mower: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel
Joseph Anthony Mower: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Joseph Anthony Mower: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain
Joseph Anthony Mower: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Joseph Anthony Mower: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
Thomas Casimer Devin: Male
Thomas Casimer Devin: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel
Thomas Casimer Devin: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Thomas Casimer Devin: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
William Hemsley Emory: Male
William Hemsley Emory: Literature\Writer
William Hemsley Emory: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
William Hemsley Emory: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
William Hemsley Emory: Science and Technology\Scientist\Astronomer
George Henry Thomas: Male
George Henry Thomas: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
George Henry Thomas: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Philip Henry Sheridan: Male
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Colonel
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Captain
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Brigadier General
Philip Henry Sheridan: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Major General
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Male
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Politics and Government\US Senator\Missouri
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Politics and Government\US Congressman\Missouri
Francis Preston Blair, Jr.: Politics and Government\State Legislator\Missouri
William Tecumseh Sherman: Male
William Tecumseh Sherman: Law and Law Enforcement\Lawyer
William Tecumseh Sherman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
William Tecumseh Sherman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
William Tecumseh Sherman: Business and Finance\Banker
William Tecumseh Sherman: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
John Grubb Parke: Male
John Grubb Parke: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
John Grubb Parke: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Oliver Otis Howard: Male
Oliver Otis Howard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Oliver Otis Howard: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Oliver Otis Howard: Literature\Writer\Historical
Oliver Otis Howard: Education and Scholarship\Founder\University
Jefferson Columbus Davis: Male
Jefferson Columbus Davis: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Jefferson Columbus Davis: Law and Law Enforcement\Criminal\Murderer
John McAllister Schofield: Male
John McAllister Schofield: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War
John McAllister Schofield: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
John McAllister Schofield: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Wesley Merritt: Male
Wesley Merritt: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Wesley Merritt: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Male
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Natural Resources\Agriculturist\Farmer
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\Cabinet Member\Secretary of War
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\General
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Politics and Government\President of US
Ulysses Simpson Grant: Congressional Gold Medal
Ambrose Everett Burnside: Male
Ambrose Everett Burnside: Business and Finance\Businessperson\Business executive\Railroad
Ambrose Everett Burnside: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Ambrose Everett Burnside: Politics and Government\US Senator\Rhode Island
Ambrose Everett Burnside: Politics and Government\Governor\Rhode Island
Gouverneur Kemble Warren: Male
Gouverneur Kemble Warren: Education and Scholarship\Educator\Teacher
Gouverneur Kemble Warren: Military and Intelligence\Army\Officer\Civil War\Union
Gouverneur Kemble Warren: Science and Technology\Engineer\Civil engineer
Portrait
Credit Line
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; transfer from the Library of Congress
Restrictions & Rights
CC0
Object number
S/NPG.76.8
Exhibition Label
As the Civil War moved into its final stages in the fall of 1864, the Norwegian artist Ole Peter Hansen Balling and a prosperous New Yorker conceived of the idea for a large equestrian painting depicting the commander of the Union armies, Ulysses S. Grant, flanked by an array of generals who served under him. Upon completion, the painting would be used to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission, a private organization for aiding sick and wounded soldiers. To obtain likenesses of the twenty-seven figures in the picture, Balling traveled to Union army encampments to make life studies of his subjects. Among the most cooperative was Grant, who gave Balling repeated opportunities to draw him as he rode with staff officers to survey the forward lines near his headquarters at City Point, Virginia.
The final rendering of Grant and His Generals approached being life-sized. Balling also painted this smaller version, most likely to serve as the template for a color lithograph of the picture. Today both paintings are in the National Portrait Gallery’s collection; the large version is on display in a nearby stairwell.
Left to right: Thomas C. Devin (1822–1878), George A. Custer (1839–1876), Hugh J. Kilpatrick (1836–1881), William H. Emory (1811–1887), Philip H. Sheridan (1831–1888), James B. McPherson (1828–1864), George Crook (1830–1890), Wesley Merritt (1834–1910), George H. Thomas (1816–1870), Gouverneur Kemble Warren (1830–1882), George G. Meade (1815–1872), John G. Parke (1827–1900), William T. Sherman (1820–1891), John A. Logan (1826–1886), Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), Ambrose E. Burnside (1824–1881), Joseph Hooker (1814–1879), Winfield Scott Hancock (1824–1886), John A. Rawlins (1831–1869), Edward O. C. Ord (1818–1883), Francis Preston Blair (1821–1875), Alfred H. Terry (1827–1890), Henry W. Slocum (1827–1894), Jefferson C. Davis (1828–1879), Oliver O. Howard (1830–1909), John M. Schofield (1831–1906), Joseph A. Mower (1827–1870)
Mientras la Guerra Civil se acercaba a su etapa final en el otoño de 1864, el artista noruego Ole Peter Hansen Balling y un próspero neoyorquino idearon hacer una pintura ecuestre de gran formato que representara al comandante de los ejércitos de la Unión, Ulysses S. Grant, flanqueado por un nutrido grupo de los generales que estaban bajo sus órdenes. El cuadro se utilizaría para recaudar fondos a beneficio del Comité Sanitario de Estados Unidos, organización privada que ayudaba a los soldados enfermos o heridos. Para poder hacer los retratos de los veintisiete personajes que aparecen en el cuadro, Balling visitó los campamentos de la Unión y dibujó bocetos del natural. Entre los modelos más cooperadores estuvo Grant, quien permitió a Balling dibujarlo en varias ocasiones mientras cabalgaba con sus oficiales para inspeccionar el frente de batalla cerca de su cuartel general en City Point, Virginia.
La versión final de Grant y sus generales es casi de tamaño natural. Balling también pintó esta versión más pequeña, probablemente como plantilla para una litografía a color. Hoy, ambas pinturas se encuentran en la colección de la National Portrait Gallery. La versión grande se expone en el vano de una escalera cercana.
Desde la izquierda: Thomas C. Devin (1822–1878), George A. Custer (1839–1876), Hugh J. Kilpatrick (1836–1881), William H. Emory (1811–1887), Philip H. Sheridan (1831–1888), James B. McPherson (1828–1864), George Crook (1830–1890), Wesley Merritt (1834–1910), George H. Thomas (1816–1870), Gouverneur Kemble Warren (1830–1882), George G. Meade (1815–1872), John G. Parke (1827–1900), William T. Sherman (1820–1891), John A. Logan (1826–1886), Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), Ambrose E. Burnside (1824–1881), Joseph Hooker (1814–1879), Winfield Scott Hancock (1824–1886), John A. Rawlins (1831–1869), Edward O. C. Ord (1818–1883), Francis Preston Blair (1821–1875), Alfred H. Terry (1827–1890), Henry W. Slocum (1827–1894), Jefferson C. Davis (1828–1879), Oliver O. Howard (1830–1909), John M. Schofield (1831–1906), Joseph A. Mower (1827–1870)
Data Source
National Portrait Gallery